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Monday, February 9, 2015

Trigger to backup the data before delete or update on a table - Oracle

Lets create a table :

 CREATE TABLE "ABC" 
   ( "EMPNO" NUMBER(4,0), 
"ENAME" VARCHAR2(10 BYTE), 
"JOB" VARCHAR2(9 BYTE), 
"MGR" NUMBER(4,0), 
"HIREDATE" DATE, 
"SAL" NUMBER(7,2), 
"COMM" NUMBER(7,2), 
"DEPTNO" NUMBER(2,0)
   ) TABLESPACE "USERS" ;

Now we will insert some data into it :

Insert into ABC (EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,MGR,HIREDATE,SAL,COMM,DEPTNO) values (7369,'SMITH','CLERK',7902,to_date('17-DEC-80','DD-MON-RR'),800,null,20);

Insert into ABC (EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,MGR,HIREDATE,SAL,COMM,DEPTNO) values (7499,'ALLEN','SALESMAN',7698,to_date('20-FEB-81','DD-MON-RR'),1600,300,30);

Insert into ABC (EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,MGR,HIREDATE,SAL,COMM,DEPTNO) values (7521,'WARD','SALESMAN',7698,to_date('22-FEB-81','DD-MON-RR'),1250,500,30);

Insert into ABC (EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,MGR,HIREDATE,SAL,COMM,DEPTNO) values (7566,'JONES','MANAGER',7839,to_date('02-APR-81','DD-MON-RR'),2975,null,20);

Insert into ABC (EMPNO,ENAME,JOB,MGR,HIREDATE,SAL,COMM,DEPTNO) values (7654,'MARTIN','SALESMAN',7698,to_date('28-SEP-81','DD-MON-RR'),1250,1400,30);

select count(*) from abc;
-- 5 rows

Lets create a backup table to store data. we are only storing part of the original table data, we can edit as per requirement :

  CREATE TABLE "SCOTT"."ABC_BAK" 
   ( "EMPNO" NUMBER(4,0), 
"ENAME" VARCHAR2(10 BYTE), 
"JOB" VARCHAR2(9 BYTE), 
"MGR" VARCHAR2(20 BYTE), 
"T_STAMP" TIMESTAMP (6) DEFAULT SYSTIMESTAMP
   ) TABLESPACE "USERS" ;


   select count(*) from abc_bak;
   
   0 rows
   
   
Now lets create a trigger, that will triger all the data from the table and store it in backup table before delete or update:

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER ABC_BAK1 
BEFORE UPDATE OR DELETE 
  ON ABC FOR EACH ROW
  BEGIN
      INSERT INTO ABC_BAK
 ( EMPNO,
   ENAME,
   JOB,MGR
    )
VALUES
 ( :old.EMPNO,
   :old.ENAME,
   :old.JOB,
   :old.MGR); 
END;


===========================================================

NOTE : You also add username and Host machine by adding below to trigger
You need to declare the variable first and then assgn values to it

DECLARE
   v_username varchar2(10);
      
  BEGIN
  -- Find username of person performing the DELETE on the table

   SELECT user INTO v_username FROM dual;

Add these to values ----

V_USERNAME,
   sys_context('userenv','host')   --- You can also add host machine here

===========================================================


Lets test our trigger is working fine.

delete from abc where ename=SCOTT;
delete from abc where ename=ALENN;
update abc set ename=ADAM where ename=ADAMS;
.
.
.
.
do some activity and test then validate the bak table.


Select * from abc_bak;


    EMPNO ENAME      JOB       MGR                  T_STAMP                       
---------- ---------- --------- -------------------- -------------------------------
      7788 SCOTT                                     09-FEB-15 06.35.28.862219000 PM 
      7499 ALLEN                                     09-FEB-15 06.35.28.862219000 PM 
      7521 WARD                                      09-FEB-15 06.35.28.862219000 PM 
      7876 ADAMS      CLERK                          09-FEB-15 06.35.53.457126000 PM 
      7900 JAMES      CLERK                          09-FEB-15 06.35.53.462433000 PM 
      7902 FORD       ANALYST                        09-FEB-15 06.35.53.466738000 PM 
      7934 MILLER     CLERK                          09-FEB-15 06.35.53.472108000 PM 
      7788 SCOTT      ANALYST   7566                 09-FEB-15 06.37.30.307425000 PM 

 8 rows selected 

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